THE TROJAN WAR: Task 1- Briseis in 'The Iliad' - Homer
Achilles did have a son who participated in the Trojan War and was intimately He had a close relationship with Patroclus of Phthia that ended when When King of the Greeks Agamemnon appropriated Briseis for himself, Achilles expressed his outrage. . Summary of 'The Trojan War: A New History,' by Barry Strauss. In 'Troy' Briseis gains more attention through her romance with Achilles. Briseis and Achilles relationship is seen as a tragic love story as. First we need to find out who Achilles and Briseis were. > In Greek mythology [ 2] Meaning, origin and history of the name Achilles.  Briseis.
Because of this threat, Achilles called the king shameless schemer, and accused him of always taking the lion's share, and using others to pile wealth and luxuries for himself.
But to his heralds Eurybates and Talthybius he gave the following orders: If he refuses to let her go, I will myself go with a larger company and take her, which will be all the worse for him.
These two came to Achilles ' ship and hut, where they halted abashed without uttering a word; for those who carry out orders, which they themselves deem as unjust, suffer a great disgrace and are filled with shame. But Achilles helped them out, breaking the silence himself: My quarrel is not with you but with Agamemnonwho sent you here to fetch the girl Briseis.
I shall count on them to be my witnesses before the happy gods, before mankind, before the brutal king himself, if the Achaeans ever need me again to save them from disaster. Thus began the wrath of Achilleswho henceforth refused to fight, and instead amused himself with the cithara in his tent.
But a short time With those words he gave her up to the heralds, who made their way back to Agamemnon 's tent. Briseis, who followed them to her second captivity unwilling and unhappy, is said to have later reproached her lover the readiness with which she was delivered to the heralds, without even a farewell kiss.
And while she was away, she wrote to him saying that his wrath was not deep enough: Agamemnon at odds with heaven But whereas Achilles ' wrath was, in the eyes of Briseis, not strong enough, in those of the Achaean army it meant disaster. For Achilles ' mother Thetis obtained of Zeus the promise to teach Agamemnon a lesson for the outrage her son had suffered, by letting the army be defeated, for a while, by the Trojans.
Briseis untouched Yet it was not before the military situation had considerably deteriorated that Agamemnon tried to appease Achilles ' wrath so that he would fight again, by offering him the seven tripods, the seven women, the seven cities, and many other gifts which included Briseis, whom Agamemnon swore he had not touched, an oath that never has been openly questioned and that also Briseis took: I swear that the Mycenaean has shared no couch with me Gifts rejected But Achilles ' considered Agamemnon 's gifts hateful, since the king, being Menelaus ' brother, had done to him what Paris had done to Menelausand it was just this kind of outrage the Achaeans had come to avenge at Troy.
Was it not for Helen 's sake? Do they then alone of mortal men love their wives, these sons of Atreus? No, for he who is a true man loves his own and cherishes her, as I too loved Briseis with all my heart. But when his dear friend died in battle, then Achillesnurturing a grief that was greater than his wrath, came to life again. He then called a council and, without asking anything, officially ended his feud with Agamemnon.
Likewise the return of Briseis to Achilles presupposes his return to battle, which in turn guarantees the death of Hektor. All of these scenes suggest a certain degree of multiformity to the Briseis story that is not generally recognized in current scholarship on Briseis, [ 68 ] which sees her as an invented character or at best a minor figure. Many studies have shown that archaic vase-painters often represented scenes that are not found in our Iliad and Odyssey but that are nonetheless traditional scenes from heroic tales.
It is important, however, to make a distinction between the Iliad—the fixed text as we now know it—and Iliadic or Cyclic traditional narratives.
Briseis - Greek Mythology Link
I contend that no study of the relationship between the Homeric epics and vase-paintings can succeed without appreciating this distinction. In our Iliad Agamemnon sends two heralds to take Briseis, but, according to another way of telling the story, Agamemnon comes in person. Because of the nature of what survives, we have only a narrow window into the larger tradition from which painters and poets composed their narratives. Reconstruction of the larger tradition can be difficult and often impossible, but, as an examination of the remaining sources will show, the ancient Greek artistic and epic traditions were at one time very fluid.
The Iliad is one way of telling the tale of Troy, but it is by no means the only way. Footnotes [ back ] 1. See Lord Because of their monumentality and millennial predominance, their versions now seem authoritative, which is the same as saying that they no longer seem to be versions. At Lord23, the difference is explained this way: For the term compression see again Lord25—27, 68—98, 99— For the length of performance see above, p.
This story pattern is also connected with so-called Ktisis-Sagen foundation sagasin which the conqueror falls in love with a local girl. See Nagy, elaborating on Schmid Because of its first position in the manuscript M where a leaf is missingthe hymn is thought to belong to the group of earlier and longer hymns.
See also Janko A well-known example of this way of incorporating variation occurs at Iliad 5. See Carlisle62—64 as well as Pratt29—30 with note From the T scholia at Iliad See also chapter 3. Apollodorus, who lists by name the towns that Achilles captured, gives Lyrnessos but does not mention Pedasos Epitome 3.
Lyrnessos, Pedasos, and Thebe are thought to be located very close to one another near Mt. Ida, not far from the gulf of Adramyttion.
In later stages of my argument it will become important that all of these cities are located near the coast opposite Lesbos, historically within the political sphere of Mytiline. Lyrnessos and Thebe in particular are closely related in the ancient sources. For a complete compendium of all ancient testimonia regarding the location of Lyrnessos, Pedasos, and Thebe, see Stauber91— The quarrel between Aeneas and Priam referred to in Iliad The medieval transmission of the Iliad and Odyssey reflects a text that has become relatively fixed.
Nevertheless, in the Classical period, although variability was limited, significant performance variants are attested that are signals of alternative traditions that once flourished.
The variants attested in the Classical period and beyond, even though in most cases they do not survive in the medieval manuscripts, are important. In at least one version of the Odyssey, to cite just one example, Telemachus goes not to Sparta, but to Crete. See the scholia at Odyssey 3. In a forthcoming work I discuss the manifold local Cretan epic traditions that are still present in our Iliad and Odyssey.
Matters of geography are the most likely to be at variance with each other in competing local epic traditions. Towns that have competed historically for the same territory have corresponding epic traditions that legitimize their claims.
See AloniNagy a, 75, noteand Higbie In the Panhellenizing process, points of geography become increasingly vague so that local color becomes screened out. For even earlier formulations of the role of the Panathenaia in shaping the Iliad and Odyssey see Nagy a, 23; b, 43; and a, See especially Nagy a, and note On the general avoidance of fantasy and elements of folk tale in the Iliad and Odyssey in contrast with the Epic Cycle see Griffin and Davies9— The Iliad and the Odyssey, on the other hand, were never understood to belong to any one city.
On the local, that is, relatively less Panhellenic nature of the poems of the Cycle see Nagy a,as well as Burgess On the earliest recoverable scope and content of the poems of the Epic Cycle, see especially DaviesScaifeand Burgess See Griffin and Davies9—10 who view these elements as signs of inferior poetryNagy a, andBurgess79 note 12 and Davies acknowledges that many of the narratives related in the Cycle were traditional, but argues that these narratives should not be attributed to Cyclic poems that predate the Iliad: For the opposite view, see Dowdenwho argues that when the Iliad refers to Cyclic traditions it is referring to fixed poetic compositions.
Many recent interpreters of Homer actually deny that the Iliad alludes to an independent tradition about the raids and prefer to see the cumulative effect of the allusions as the work of a master poet.
See discussion above, p. See also Lowenstam for recent arguments and bibliography. Briseis, and Lowenstam39— There is also a wall painting from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii. For representations of Briseis in other scenes, see below, pp. See also Friis Johansenand The other vases have no labels, but show a man leading a woman away by the wrist. See also Friis Johansen— See especially Boston The leading of Helen back by Menelaus is also depicted this way.
See again Boston On this vase see also Caskey-Beazley32—37 and Robinson The two scenes are also a way of representing the passage of time, as well as the beginning and end of the Helen story. See also Lowenstam My own view is slightly different, for which see further below. Lowenstam26 and He cites Ahlberg-Cornell For more on this point, see the conclusion. See especially Nagy and b, — For a person on the inside of a traditional society myth is truth. Someone looking in on that society from the outside, however, can see that there are many different versions of the same myth which are mutually inconsistent.
Greeks became aware through contacts between different communities that their various local versions of myths were mutually contradictory. An Athenian version might be very different from a Lesbian version that might in turn be very different from a Spartan version.
For earlier studies of the relationship see Friis Johansen and Fittschen I do not mean to deny that Hesiodic and lyric poetry ever influenced archaic vase-painters, nor do I claim that vase-painters never had poetry in mind when they painted.
Poetry is sometimes painted or inscribed on vases. See Ferrari and — for examples and bibliography. It is interesting to note that the examples cited involve a performance of some kind or words written in scrolls.
In other words, the poetry does not label the scene but is part of the scene. Ferrari — discusses a possible exception to this formulation. For a survey of vase-paintings on which lyric poetry is inscribed see Lissarrague— Friis Johansen Gloria Ferrari suggests to me that the flower in such scenes is a symbol of loveliness and erotic attraction.
See also Irwin On the iconography of courtship scenes, see Dover91— and particularly 92—93 for girls holding flowers. On flowers as a love gift see Koch-Harnack See Neils For Achilles and Polyxena in archaic vase-painting and in the Cypria see Scaife— For the unidentifiable scenes see Kossatz-Deissmann See Friis Johansen See also Friis Johansen The scene is no doubt to some degree sympotic.
The shape of the vase a drinking cup is similar to the one that Phoinix holds, into which Briseis pours wine. But I do not think we should exclude the possibility that a traditional scene from a no longer surviving narrative is depicted here, and of course sympotic singing does not exclude narrative. There are six black-figure, and three red-figure vases.