Hera - Wikipedia
Although Aphrodite and Hera were not friends, Hera went to the Goddess of Love for help as she endeavored to assist the heroes in their Quest of the Golden. From then on out Zeus and Hera endured a rocky relationship, caused mostly “ the fairest goddess”, Hera was extremely angry that the title went to Aphrodite. Hera is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in ancient Greek religion and . Homer expressed her relationship with Zeus delicately in the Iliad, in which she declares to Zeus, "I am Cronus' eldest daughter, .. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple.
Hera then sent a flood which raised the water level of a river so much that Heracles could not ford the river with the cattle. He piled stones into the river to make the water shallower. When he finally reached the court of Eurystheus, the cattle were sacrificed to Hera.
Eurystheus also wanted to sacrifice the Cretan Bull to Hera. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Heracles. The bull was released and wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull. Some myths state that in the end, Heracles befriended Hera by saving her from Porphyriona giant who tried to rape her during the Gigantomachyand that she even gave her daughter Hebe as his bride.
Whatever myth-making served to account for an archaic representation of Heracles as "Hera's man" it was thought suitable for the builders of the Heraion at Paestum to depict the exploits of Heracles in bas-reliefs. Apollo and Artemis[ edit ] When Hera discovered that Leto was pregnant and that Zeus was the father, she convinced the nature spirits to prevent Leto from giving birth on terra-firmathe mainland, any island at sea, or any place under the sun.
Alternatively, Hera kidnapped Eileithyiathe goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto from going into labor. The other gods bribed Hera with a beautiful necklace nobody could resist and she finally gave in.
Later Tityos attempted to rape Leto at the behest of Hera. He was slain by Artemis and Apollo. Hera saw a lone thundercloud and raced down in an attempt to catch Zeus with a mistress. Zeus saw her coming and transformed his new bride Io into a little snow-white cow.
However, Hera was not fooled and demanded that Zeus give her the heifer as a present. Zeus could not refuse his queen without drawing suspicion so he had to give her the beautiful heifer. Argus was a loyal servant to Hera and he has immense strength and one hundred eyes all over his body.
The Rocky Relationship of Zeus and Hera
It was not possible to go past Argus since he never closed more than half his eyes at any time. Zeus was afraid of Hera's wrath could not personally intervene, so to save Io, he commanded Hermes to kill Argus, which he does by lulling all one hundred eyes into eternal sleep. In Ovid 's interpolation, when Hera learned of Argus' death, she took his eyes and placed them in the plumage of the peacockher favorite animal, accounting for the eye pattern in its tail and making it the vainest of all animals.
Eventually Io made it to Egyptthe Egyptians worshiped the snow-white heifer and named her the Egyptian goddess Isis. Hera permitted Zeus to change Io back into her human form, under the condition that he never look at her again. Io, the goddess-queen of Egypt, then bore Zeus' son as the next King. Judgement of Paris This is one of the many works depicting the event. Hera is the goddess in the center, wearing the crown.
She was annoyed at this, so she threw from the door a gift of her own: The goddesses quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two.
They chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Parisa Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida where Troy was situated, they appeared before Paris to have him choose. The goddesses undressed before him, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes.
Hera offered Paris political power and control of all of Asiawhile Athena offered wisdom, fame, and glory in battle, and Aphrodite offered the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen's abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War.
The Iliad[ edit ] Hera plays a substantial role in The Iliadappearing in a number of books throughout the epic poem. In accordance with ancient Greek mythology, Hera's hatred towards the Trojanswhich was started by Paris' decision that Aphrodite was the most beautiful goddess, is seen as through her support of the Greeks during the war. Throughout the epic Hera makes many attempts to thwart the Trojan army.
In books 1 and 2, Hera declares that the Trojans must be destroyed. Hera persuades Athena to aid the Achaeans in battle and she agrees to assist with interfering on their behalf. Diomedes called for his soldiers to fall back slowly. Hera, Ares' mother, saw Ares' interference and asked ZeusAres' father, for permission to drive Ares away from the battlefield.
Hera encouraged Diomedes to attack Ares and he threw his spear at the god. Athena drove the spear into Ares' body, and he bellowed in pain and fled to Mt. Olympusforcing the Trojans to fall back. In book 8, Hera tries to persuade Poseidon to disobey Zeus and help the Achaean army. Determined to intervene in the war, Hera and Athena head to the battlefield. However, seeing the two flee, Zeus sent Iris to intercept them and make them return to Mt. Olympus or face grave consequences. After prolonged fighting, Hera sees Poseidon aiding the Greeks and giving them motivation to keep fighting.
In book 14 Hera devises a plan to deceive Zeus. Zeus set a decree that the gods were not allowed to interfere in the mortal war. Hera is on the side of the Achaeans, so she plans a Deception of Zeus where she seduces him, with help from Aphrodite, and tricks him into a deep sleep, with the help of Hypnosso that the Gods could interfere without the fear of Zeus.
Hephaestus sets the battlefield ablaze, causing the river to plead with Hera, promising her he will not help the Trojans if Hephaestus stops his attack. Hephaestus stops his assault and Hera returns to the battlefield where the gods begin to fight amongst themselves. When Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to only repeat the words of others hence our modern word " echo ". Semele and Dionysus When Hera learned that Semeledaughter of Cadmus King of Thebeswas pregnant by Zeus, she disguised herself as Semele's nurse and persuaded the princess to insist that Zeus show himself to her in his true form.
When he was compelled to do so, having sworn by Styx  his thunder and lightning destroyed Semele.
Zeus took Semele's unborn child, Dionysus and completed its gestation sewn into his own thigh. In another version, Dionysus was originally the son of Zeus by either Demeter or Persephone. Eros, Anteros, Deimos, Phobos; and a daughter: Hera cursed the goddess to bear a horribly ugly child, Priapos, as punishment for her promiscuity.
Some say Hermes Bakkheios Iakkhos was also their child. Aphrodite was never happy with the marriage having been forced to wed him by decree of Zeus, as a gift for releasing his mother Hera from the bonds of the cursed golden throne. She bore him a son, the godling Hermaphroditos and some say Eros.
When he refused to leave the sea to join her on Olympos, she transformed him into a shell-fish for his betrayal. She bore him two daughters Rhodos and Herophilos. Aphrodite fled and Zeus' seed was spilt upon the earth. Mt Olympos Home of the Gods I. Hephaistos had been cast from heaven by his mother Hera at birth, for she was ashamed at bearing a crippled son.
He was rescued by Thetis and Eurynome and raised in a cave on the shores of the River Okeanos where he became a skilled smith. Angry at his mother's treatment, Hephaistos sent various gifts to Olympos including a Golden Throne for Hera. When the goddess sat upon this cursed throne she was bound fast.
Zeus sought the assistance of the gods in the freeing his Queen and offered the goddess Aphrodite in marriage to the god who could bring Hephaistos to Olympos. Aphrodite agreed to the arrangment in the belief that her beloved Ares would prevail. Ares stormed the forge of Hephaistos, bearing arms, but was driven back by the Divine Smith with showers of flaming metal according to Libanius Narrations 7, not currently quoted here.
Dionysos next approached the god, and suggested that he might claim Aphrodite for himself if he were to release his mother willingly. Hephaistos was pleased with the plan and ascended to Heaven with Dionysos, released his mother and wed the reluctant Love-Goddess. Shewring Greek epic C8th B. Way Greek epic C4th A. Jones Greek travelogue C2nd A.
One of the Greek legends is that Hephaistos, when he was born, was thrown down by Hera. In revenge he sent as a gift a golden chair with invisible fetters. When Hera sat down she was held fast, and Hephaistos refused to listen to any other of the gods [including Ares] save Dionysos--in him he reposed the fullest trust--and after making him drunk Dionysos brought him to heaven.
Grant Roman mythographer C2nd A. Then he obtained freedom of choice from Jove [Zeus], to gain whatever he sought from them. The requested bride was perhaps Aphrodite rather than Athene in the original version of this story.Hades and Persephone: The Myth of the Seasons - Greek Mythology Ep.02 - See u in History
When Ares tried to fetch Hephaistos to Olympos to release Hera from the throne, the prize for this labour being the hand of Aphrodite in marriage, which Hephaistos claimed for himself. Meanwhile Dionysos, enters, leading the mule on which Hephaistos is seated, to Aphrodite who stands waiting as the prize of marriage. Rieu Greek epic C3rd B. They [Hera and Athene] entered the courtyard and paused below the veranda of the room where the goddess slept with her lord and master.
She wished to please Hephaistos, the great Artificer, and save his isle of Lemnos from ever lacking men again. The whole city [of Lemnos] was alive with dance and banquet. The scent of burnt-offerings filled the air; and of all the immortals, it was Hera's glorious son Hephaistos and Kypris [Aphrodite] herself whom their songs and sacrifices were designed to please.
Day-Lewis Roman epic C1st B. Since Volcanos [Hephaistos] complied not at once, the goddess softly embraced him in snowdrift arms, caressing him here and there. Of a sudden he caught the familiar spark and felt the old warmth darting into his marrow, coursing right though his body, melting him; just as it often happens a thunderclap starts a flaming rent which ladders the dark cloud, a quivering streak of fire.
Pleased with her wiles and aware of her beauty, Venus [Aphrodite] could feel them taking effect. Volcanus [Hephaistos], in love's undying thrall [conceded to her requests]. Thus saying, he gave his wife the love he was aching to give her; then he sank into soothing sleep, relaxed upon her breast. Ares had offered many gifts to the garlanded divinity and covered with shame the marriage bed of Lord Hephaistos. But Helios the sun-god had seen them in their dalliance and hastened away to tell Hephaistos; to him the news was bitter as gall, and he made his way towards his smithy, brooding revenge.
He laid the great anvil on its base and set himself to forge chains that could not be broken or torn asunder, being fashioned to bind lovers fast. Such was the device that he made in his indignation against Ares, and having made it he went to the room where his bed lay; all round the bed-posts he dropped the chains, while others in plenty hung from the roof-beams, gossamer-light and invisible to the blessed gods themselves, so cunning had been the workmanship.
When the snare round the bed was complete, he made as if to depart to Lemnos, the pleasant-sited town, which he loved more than any place on earth. Ares, god of the golden reins, was no blind watcher. Once he had seen Hephaistos go, he himself approached the great craftman's dwelling, pining for love of Kytherea [Aphrodtie].
The Rocky Relationship of Zeus and Hera
As for her, she had just returned from the palace of mighty Zeus her father, and was sitting down in the house as Ares entered it.
He took her hand and spoke thus to her: Hephaistos is no longer here; by now, I think, he has made his way to Lemnos, to visit the uncouth-spoken Sintians.
So they went to the bed and there lay down, but the cunning chains of crafty polyphron Hephaistos enveloped them, and they could neither raise their limbs nor shift them at all; so they saw the truth when there was no escaping. Meanwhile the lame craftsman god periklytos Amphigueeis approached; he had turned back short of the land of Lemnos, since watching Helios the sun-god had told him everything.
Cut to the heart, he neared his house and halted inside the porch; savage anger had hold of him, and he roared out hideously, crying to all the gods: Aphrodite had Zeus for father; because I am lame she never ceased to do me outrage and give her love to destructive Ares, since he is handsome and sound-footed and I am a cripple from my birth; yet for that my two parents are to blame, no one else at all, and I wish they had never begotten me.
You will see the pair of lovers now as they lie embracing in my bed; the sight of them makes me sick at heart. Yet I doubt their desire to rest there longer, fond as they are. They will soon unwish their posture there; but my cunning chains shall hold them both fast till her father Zeus has given me back all the betrothal gifts I bestowed on him for his wanton daughter; beauty she has, but no sense of shame.
Poseidon the Earth-Sustainer came, and Hermes the Mighty Runner, and Lord Apollon who shoots from afar; but the goddesses, every one of them, kept within doors for very shame.
Thus then the bounteous gods stood at the entrance. Laughter they could not quench rose on the lips of these happy beings as they fixed their eyes on the stratagem of Hephaistos, and glancing each at his neighbour said some such words as these: For Poseidon there was no laughing; he kept imploring the master smith Hephaistos in hopes that he would let Ares go.
He spoke in words of urgent utterance: Pledges for trustless folk are trustless pledges. If Ares should go his way, free of his chains and his debt alike, what then? Could I fetter yourself in the presence of all the gods.
Unshackled thus, the lovers were up and off at once; Ares went on his way to Thrake, and Aphrodite the laughter-lover to Paphos in Kypros. Shorey Greek philosopher C4th B.
APHRODITE MYTHS 5 LOVES - Greek Mythology
Gullick Greek rhetorician C2nd to 3rd A. Conybeare Greek biography C1st to 2nd A. Ares, the most warlike of the gods, was first enchained in heaven by Hephaistos. When Mars came to the rendezvous, the together with Venus fell into the snare so that he could not extricate himself.
When Sol [Helios the sun] reported this to Vulcanus, he saw them lying there naked, and summoned all the gods who saw. As a result, shame frightened Mars so that he did not do this.