Human musculoskeletal system - Wikipedia
Joints. A joint is a place where two or more bones meet and is also called an articulation. The role of joints and connective tissue. Connective tissues consist of . The bones of the skeleton support our skin, give our body shape, protect formed where the surfaces of two or more bones meet and articulate. A place on the body where two or more bones meet. Exam tip. Movement analysis is a very popular topic about which examiners like to test your knowledge.
Types of fractures Closed or simple—the bone is broken, but it does not break the skin. Open or compound—the bone is broken and it pierces the skin. Transverse—the fracture is at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
Greenstick—the fracture is only on one side of the bone and does not go all the way through to the other side. Comminuted—a fracture that results in three or more bone fragments. Pathological--the bone has been weakened or destroyed by disease so that it breaks easily Stress--There is a hairline crack in a bone, sometimes not even visible on an x-ray, that is caused by repeated injury or stress on the bone.
X-rays help determine the position of the fractured bones. If necessary, the orthopedist will correct the position of the bones to allow for proper healing. A plaster or fiberglass cast can be applied after the bone has been repositioned to immobilize the bone while it heals. When you were a baby, your skull was made up of a bunch of different pieces that grew as your brain grew. And then, as an adult, the joints between these bones then fused and became synarthroses.
The next type of joint is called an amphiarthroses. Amphi- meaning it's both stiff but also slightly movable. And an example of amphiarthroses would be your vertebral joints. And then finally, we have what are synovial joints, which are also known as diarthroses, of which there are a couple different types. One type, for example, is the ball and socket synovial joint, and you'll find examples of ball and socket joints in your shoulders or in your hips.
So they work in pairs of flexors and extensors. The flexor contracts to bend a limb at a joint.
Bones, Muscles, and Joints (for Teens)
For example, the biceps muscle, in the front of the upper arm, is a flexor, and the triceps, at the back of the upper arm, is an extensor. When you bend at your elbow, the biceps contracts. Then the biceps relaxes and the triceps contracts to straighten the elbow. Joints and What They Do Joints occur where two bones meet. They make the skeleton flexible — without them, movement would be impossible.
Joints allow our bodies to move in many ways. Some joints open and close like a hinge such as knees and elbowswhereas others allow for more complicated movement — a shoulder or hip joint, for example, allows for backward, forward, sideways, and rotating movement. Joints are classified by their range of movement.
Immovable, or fibrous, joints don't move. The dome of the skull, for example, is made of bony plates, which must be immovable to protect the brain. Between the edges of these plates are links, or joints, of fibrous tissue. Fibrous joints also hold the teeth in the jawbone.
Partially movable, or cartilaginous, joints move a little. They are linked by cartilage, as in the spine.
Human musculoskeletal system
Each of the vertebrae in the spine moves in relation to the one above and below it, and together these movements give the spine its flexibility.
Freely movable, or synovial, joints move in many directions. The main joints of the body — found at the hip, shoulders, elbows, knees, wrists, and ankles — are freely movable.
They are filled with synovial fluid, which acts as a lubricant to help the joints move easily. Three kinds of freely movable joints play a big part in voluntary movement: Hinge joints allow movement in one direction, as seen in the knees and elbows. Pivot joints allow a rotating or twisting motion, like that of the head moving from side to side.
Ball-and-socket joints allow the greatest freedom of movement. The hips and shoulders have this type of joint, in which the round end of a long bone fits into the hollow of another bone. Muscles can weaken, and joints as well as tendons, ligaments, and cartilage can be damaged by injury or disease.
Bone Anatomy | Ask A Biologist
Problems that can affect the bones, muscles, and joints include: Arthritis is the inflammation of a joint, and people who have it experience swelling, warmth, pain, and often have trouble moving. Although we often think of arthritis as a condition that affects only older people, arthritis can also occur in children and teens.
Health problems that involve arthritis in kids and teens include juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA, also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, or JRAlupusLyme diseaseand septic arthritis a bacterial infection of a joint.
A fracture is when a bone breaks; it may crack, snap, or shatter. After a fracture, new bone cells fill the gap and repair the break. Applying a strong plaster cast, which keeps the bone in the correct position until it heals, is the usual treatment. If the fracture is complicated, metal pins and plates can be placed to better stabilize it while the bone heals.
Muscular dystrophy is an inherited group of diseases that affect the muscles, causing them to weaken and break down over time. The most common form in childhood is called Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and it most often affects boys.
OSD usually strikes active teens around the beginning of their growth spurts, the approximately 2-year period during which they grow most rapidly. Osteomyelitis is a bone infection often caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, though other types of bacteria can cause it, too.
In kids and teens, osteomyelitis usually affects the long bones of the arms and legs. Osteomyelitis often develops after an injury or trauma.
In osteoporosis, bone tissue becomes brittle, thin, and spongy. Bones break easily, and the spine sometimes begins to crumble and collapse. Although the condition usually affects older people, kids and teens with eating disorders can get the condition, as can girls with female athlete triad syndrome — a combination of three conditions that some girls who exercise or play sports may be at risk for: Participation in sports where a thin appearance is valued can put a girl at risk for female athlete triad.The Skeletal and Muscular System
Repetitive stress injuries RSIs.